Background Currently, no pharmacy services exist in outpatient dialysis centres in Australia, although the literature demonstrates the positive contribution of pharmacists to dialysis patients.
Purpose To explore hospital pharmacists' willingness to implement pharmacy services in outpatient dialysis centres.
Materials and methods Qualitative indepth, semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of hospital pharmacists recruited through the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia Renal Special Interest Group. The interview guide was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which explains human behaviour as the result of attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. These components determine behavioural intention which is the immediate antecedent of behaviour. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed for thematic content.
Results Thirteen renal hospital pharmacists were interviewed. All except one demonstrated high behavioural intention, as a consequence of positive attitudes towards the implementation of the service, favourable subjective norm, and high perceived behavioural control. The expected outcomes of the service perceived by pharmacists included benefits to patients, the renal team and the pharmacy profession, as well as financial savings due to dose optimisation and improvement of patients' adherence. Subjective norm was favourable meaning that nephrologists, nurses and patients were thought to be receptive towards a future service. Barriers pointed out for the implementation comprised: funding, hospital administrators' approval, time and staff shortages, academic training, relationship with physicians and attitudes of pharmacists, renal team, and patients. Facilitators included: having an interview room with access to information sources, consent from the team, access to patients' profiles, and a full-time pharmacist with a clearly-defined role.
Conclusions Pharmacists showed high willingness and perceived behavioural control to develop pharmacy services in outpatient dialysis centres. The potential barriers outlined should be taken into account, as well as the holistic approach for the successful implementation of cognitive pharmacy services.
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