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Clinical pharmacy and clinical trials (including case series)
Short form 36 and hospital anxiety and depression scale and its predictors in saudi dialysis patients and healthy controls
  1. N. Abanmy,
  2. P. Gard,
  3. A. MacAdam,
  4. O. Alomran
  1. 1King Saud University, Clinical Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  2. 2University of Brighton, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Brighton, United Kingdom
  3. 3King Saud University, Clinical Pharmacy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


Background Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and increased anxiety and depression are documented in dialysis patients. Stable HRQOL, lower anxiety and depression are important goals for treatment; however little is known about the specific case of Saudi dialysis patients.

Purpose To study HRQOL, anxiety and depression in stable Saudi dialysis patients and to explore predictors of poor HRQOL, anxiety and depression.

Materials and methods Fifty-three dialysis patients from two dialysis centres in Riyadh and age and education-matched healthy volunteers (36 subjects) from the same hospitals were recruited. HRQOL, anxiety and depression were assessed using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS) respectively (Arabic versions). Age, education, gender, duration of dialysis, DM and smoking were explored as independent predictors.

Results Patients and controls had similar ages (33.7±9.9 vs 36.6±10.9 years), and education level (12.1±3.0 vs 11.5±3.3 years). 55.6% of controls and 64.2% of patients were male. Patients had significantly lower total HRQOL scores (p =.001), specifically in the physical component summary (PCS) (p =.001) although not in the mental component summary (MCS); one item in MCS (social functioning) was significantly higher in controls (p =.03). There were no differences in anxiety and depression. Longer dialysis duration predicted poor HRQOL (R2 =.08, p=.04), PCS (R2 =.09, p=.03) and MCS (R2 =.09, p=.02), and higher anxiety (R2 =.07, p=.04). Female gender (R2 =.11, p=.045) and lower education level (R2 =.06, p=.048) also predicted higher anxiety.

Conclusions Low QOL in Saudi dialysis patients was identified with the score worsening the longer they were on dialysis. Anxiety and depression test scores were unaffected which contradicts previous reports. The effect of female gender, low education level and longer dialysis duration on anxiety was expected and documented previously.

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