Article Text

Download PDFPDF
PP-006 Microwave freeze-thaw treatment of injectable drugs: a review of the literature from 1980 to 2014
  1. JD Hecq1,
  2. S Huvelle2,
  3. M Godet2,
  4. J Jamart3,
  5. L Galanti2
  1. 1CHU Dinant Godinne – UCL Namur, Pharmacy, Yvoir, Belgium
  2. 2CHU Dinant Godinne – UCL Namur, Medical Laboratory, Yvoir, Belgium
  3. 3CHU Dinant Godinne – UCL Namur, Scientific Support Unit, Yvoir, Belgium


Background Microwave freeze-thaw treatment (MFTT) of injectable drugs can support the development of centralised intravenous admixtures services (CIVAS).

Purpose The aim of the review is to collect information and results about this method.

Material and methods A systematic review of the scientific literature about drug stability studies was made. The data are presented in a table and describe name of the drug, producer, final concentration, temperature and time of freezing storage, type of microwave oven, thawing power, method of dosage and results after treatment or final long-term storage at 2–8°C.

Results From 1980 to 2014, 63 drugs (anti-infectious, cytotoxics, antiemetic, pain treatment, …) were studied by MFTT and the results were presented in 52 publications. 41 papers were presented by 8 teams (2 to 21 by team). The storage freezing temperatures vary from −70°C to −10°C, the storage time from 4 h to 12 months, the thaw from low to full power. Assay of concentration was mainly done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Most of the 63 drugs are stable during and after treatment. However, ampicillin needs a very low storage temperature from −30°C to −70°C, cefuroxime a storage temperature lower than −20°C and mitomycin −30°C. Only 3 teams have tested the long term stability after MFTT, the first for ganciclovir after 7 days, the second for ceftizoxime after 30 days and the third for 28 drugs after 11 to 70 days.

Conclusion This review can help CIVAS to undertake the production of ready-to-use injectable drugs.


  1. Hecq JD, Jamart J, Galanti L. Microwave freeze-thaw treatment of dose-banded cytotoxics injectable drugs: A review of the literature from 1980 to 2011. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 2012;70:227–35

ReferenceNo conflict of interest.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.