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Extemporaneous sotalol hydrochloride oral solutions for use in paediatric cardiology: formulation and stability study
  1. Sylva Klovrzová1,2,
  2. Lukáš Zahálka3,
  3. Tomáš Kříž2,
  4. Oxana Zahálková3,
  5. Ludmila Matysová3,
  6. Zdenka Šklubalová2,
  7. Petr Horák1
  1. 1Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic
  2. 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
  3. 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Charles University in Prague, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
  1. Correspondence to Dr Zdenka Šklubalová, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovského 1203, Hradec Králové 500 05, Czech Republic; zdenka.sklubalova{at}


Objectives Sotalol hydrochloride (SOT) is an antiarrhythmic β-blocker which is highly effective for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in children. However, a licensed paediatric dosage form with sotalol is not currently available in Europe. The aim of this work was to formulate paediatric oral solutions with SOT 5 mg/mL for extemporaneous preparation in a hospital pharmacy with the lowest possible amount of excipients and to determine their stability.

Methods Three aqueous solutions were formulated. One preparation without any additives for neonates and two preparations for children from 1 month of age were compounded using citric acid to stabilise the pH value, potassium sorbate 0.1% w/v as a preservative, and simple syrup or sodium saccharin as a sweetener. The samples were stored at room temperature and in a refrigerator, respectively, and the content of SOT and potassium sorbate was determined simultaneously using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method at different time points over 180 days.

Results At least 95% of the initial sotalol concentration remained throughout the 180-day study period in all three preparations at both temperatures. The content of potassium sorbate decreased by 17% with sodium saccharin stored at room temperature.

Conclusions The three proposed oral aqueous solutions of SOT for neonates and infants were stable for 180 days. Storage in a refrigerator is preferred, particularly with sodium saccharin. The additive-free solution of SOT can be autoclaved to ensure microbiological stability and used particularly for neonates and in emergency situations.

  • sotalol hydrochloride
  • oral liquid

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