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A national e-Delphi towards the measurement of safe medication practices in Portuguese hospitals
  1. Mara Pereira Guerreiro1,2,
  2. Madalena Plácido3,
  3. Carla Teixeira Barros3,4,
  4. Anabela Coelho5,
  5. Anabela Graça6,
  6. Maria João Gaspar5,
  7. Sofia de Oliveira Martins3
  1. 1Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa (ESEL), Lisboa, Portugal
  2. 2Centro de investigação interdisciplinar Egas Moniz (CiiEM), Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz (ISCSEM), Monte de Caparica, Portugal
  3. 3Faculdade Farmácia (FFULisboa), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  4. 4Faculdade de Farmácia, Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  5. 5Departamento da Qualidade na Saúde, Direção-Geral da Saúde, Lisbon, Portugal
  6. 6ESTeSL—Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Saúde de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  1. Correspondence to Professor Sofia de Oliveira Martins, Faculdade Farmácia (FFULisboa), Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, Lisboa 1649-003, Portugal; som{at}


Objectives To determine the face and content validity of items for measuring safe medication practices in Portuguese hospitals.

Methods 128 items were drafted from content analysis of existing questionnaires and the literature, employing preferred terms of the WHO International Classification for Patient Safety (Portuguese version). A two-round e-Delphi was convened, using a purposive multidisciplinary panel. Hospital-based experts were asked to rate the relevance of items on a 7-point Likert scale and to comment on their clarity and completeness.

Results The response rate was similar in both rounds (70.3% and 73.4%, respectively). In the first round 91/128 (71.1%) items reached the predefined level of positive consensus. In the second round 23 additional items reached positive consensus, as well as seven items newly derived by the panel.

Conclusions Most items have face and content validity, indicating relevance and clarity, and can be included in a future questionnaire for measuring safe medication practices in Portuguese hospitals.

  • Delphi
  • Portugal
  • patient safety
  • medication
  • safe practices

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