Background Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody that provides passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Purpose To evaluate the use of palivizumab as immunoprophylaxis against RSV in the 2016 to 2017 campaign in a tertiary hospital.
Material and methods Retrospective observational study (October 2016 to March 2017) that included patients in follow-up by the paediatric service who received palivizumab as immunoprophylaxis against RSV in a tertiary hospital.
The variables collected were: sex, gestational age, age at the beginning of the vaccination campaign, number of doses, prescription criteria established by the Spanish Society of Neonatology (SEN) (A: children<2 years of age with bronchopulmonary disease; B: gestational age <28 weeks and age <12 months; C: gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks and age <6 months; and D: gestational age between 32 and 35 weeks, age <10 weeks and brother/sister of school age), number of hospitalisations for bronchiolitis and result of the immunochromatographic test for the qualitative detection of RSV antigens in nasopharyngeal samples. Data were obtained from the clinical history, laboratory data and FarHo® (pharmacy software).
Results Twenty patients (55% males) were included, with a mean age of 6.8±5.12 months at the beginning of the campaign. Its use was justified according to the prescription criteria established by the SEN; A: six patients (30%); B: six patients (30%); C: two patients (10%); and D: six patients (30%). All patients received the recommended dose, with the mean dose administered being 93.1±31.1 mg. Patients received an average of 2.1±0.75 administrations.
The total cost was €42,528.9. Only one patient (0.05%) was hospitalised for acute bronchiolitis, and the RSV test was positive. The patient had received only one dose of palivizumab, which had been given the day before hospital admission.
Conclusion Palivizumab has been effective in the prevention of RSV bronchiolitis in high-risk patients.
In all cases it has been used under the criteria established by the SEN. More studies are needed to assess the effectiveness with these criteria.
According to the results obtained we shall proceed to the establishment of an action protocol for the next vaccination campaign in the hospital.
References and/or Acknowledgements EPAR product information.
No conflict of interest
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