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Perception and practices of public hospital pharmacists towards the antimicrobial stewardship programme in the State of Selangor, Malaysia
  1. Muhammad Syafiq Saleh1,
  2. Yet Hoi Hong2,
  3. Mohd Rahimi Muda1,
  4. Ahmad Fauzi Dali1,
  5. Mohamed Azmi Hassali3,
  6. Tahir Mehmood Khan4,5,
  7. Chin Fen Neoh1,6
  1. 1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, Puncak Alam, Malaysia
  2. 2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. 3 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
  4. 4 Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore, Pakistan
  5. 5 School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway City, Malaysia
  6. 6 Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR) Group, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Community of Research, UiTM, Shah Alam, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Chin Fen Neoh, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Puncak Alam 42300, Malaysia; chinfenneoh{at}


Objective The increase in antimicrobial resistance and the lack of new antimicrobial agents in drug discovery pipelines have called for global attention to mitigate the problem of antimicrobial misuse. While an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme has been implemented in Malaysia, the perception and practices of public hospital pharmacists remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the perception and practices of Malaysian public hospital pharmacists towards the AMS programme in the state of Selangor, Malaysia.

Methods A cross-sectional study, using a validated 23-item self-administered questionnaire, was conducted among pharmacists from 11 public hospitals in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, from December 2016 to January 2017. All public hospital pharmacists (n=432) were invited to participate in the survey. A 5-point Likert scale was employed in the questionnaire; the perception section was scored from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) while the practice section was scored from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used to analyse data.

Results Of the 432 pharmacists surveyed, 199 responded, giving a response rate of 46.0%. The majority of the respondents agreed (n=190, 95.5%) that the AMS programme improves patient care at their hospitals (median=5; IQR=1). Slightly less than half of the respondents indicated that a local antibiotic guideline was established in their hospitals (median=3, IQR=2.5), and had taken part in antimicrobial awareness campaigns to promote optimal use of antimicrobials in hospitals (median=3, IQR=1).

Conclusions Overall, the perception and practices of the surveyed hospital pharmacists towards AMS programme were positive. National antibiotic guidelines, which take into consideration local antimicrobial resistance patterns, should be used fully to improve antimicrobial usage and to reduce practice variation. Collaboration among healthcare professionals should be strengthened to minimise the unfavourable consequences of unintended use of antimicrobial agents while optimising clinical outcomes.

  • infectious diseases
  • infection control
  • public health
  • human resource management
  • competency evaluation

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