Background and importance Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder that causes kidney damage; the treatment goal is to postpone renal failure. The only specific treatment approved for ADPKD is tolvaptan (Jinarc, Otsuka Pharmaceutical), an arginine–vasopressin receptor antagonist taken orally—45 mg in the morning and 15 mg in the evening.
Aim and objectives To present two cases of tolvaptan associated toxicity.
Material and methods The cases were detected and monitored by a nephrologist during outpatient visits in our centre, and laboratory tests were done during this time. After a suspicion of tolvaptan associated toxicity, the electronic clinical records and laboratory tests were reviewed.
Results Case 1: a 43-year-old man with ADPKD, whose mother had ADPKD, had been using losartan, carbonate calcic, manidipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide. He started tolvaptan at the lowest dose. It was well tolerated and weeks later creatine kinase (CK) plasma levels increased dramatically (table 1). Tolvaptan was stopped and CK levels recovered to baseline levels. The patient reported he felt better after treatment discontinuation.
Case 2: a 41-year-old man with ADPKD, whose mother and siblings were also affected, was treated with enalapril, amlodipine and allopurinol. He started tolvaptan at the lowest dose with good tolerance. An increase in CK was detected, treatment was stopped (all other treatments continued) and CK plasma levels declined (table 1).
Neither patient No 1 nor patient No 2 showed clinical symptoms. They reported that they had not taken other treatments and had occasionally performed moderate exercise, as usual. In the absence of other justifications, according to the Naranjo causality assessment, it was probable (6 points) that tolvaptan caused hyperCKaemia.
Conclusion and relevance These are the first cases of tolvaptan induced hyperCKaemia reported. HyperCKaemia could be common in ADPKD patients taking tolvaptan and might be underestimated. It is advisable to monitor CK serum concentrations in these patients.
References and/or acknowledgements No conflict of interest.
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