Background and importance The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines recommend the optimisation of the nutritional status of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection through dietary advice and/or oral nutritional supplements (SNO). These should provide about 400 kcal and a minimum of 30 g of protein per serving.
Aim and objectives To identify the risk of malnutrition in patients with COVID-19 who received SNO, the cause of it and the adequacy of the SNO according to ESPEN guidelines.
Material and methods A cross sectional observational study was conducted between March and April 2020. Adult patients with COVID-19 who received SNO were included. Variables collected were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), risk of malnutrition according to GLIM criteria, phenotypic criteria (weight loss (>5% in the previous 6 months) and low BMI (≤20 kg/m2 for those aged <70 years old and ≤22 kg/m2 in the elderly)) and aetiologic criteria (low intake (≥ 7 days of hyporexia) and inflammation, type of SNO, energy and protein intake, adaptation of the oral diet, evaluation by the nutrition service and reason for the consultation). The SPSS programme (V.25.0) was used for data analysis.
Results 162 patients were analysed. 51.8% (85) were men with a mean age of 72.75±12.58 years. Mean BMI mean was 27.05±4.2 kg/m2. 15.2% (25) of patients presented weight loss greater and 6.7% (11) presented low BMI. 92.1% (151) had low intake and all patients fulfilled the criteria for inflammation associated with the disease. 22.6% (37) of the patients presented with a risk of malnutrition. The SNO provided a mean of 408.4±164.06 kcal/day and all were hyperprotein, with a mean of 25.96±10.08 g of protein/day. 18.3% (30) had an adapted oral diet and 16.5% (27) of the patients underwent consultation with the nutrition service, the reasons for this being: 70% (19) marked hyporexia, 18.5% (5) dysphagia and 14.8% (3) diarrhoea.
Conclusion and relevance A quarter of the patients analysed presented with a risk of malnutrition. Hyporexia was the main symptom. In our hospital, it would be advisable to increase the caloric and protein intake of the SNO to comply with ESPEN recommendations.
Conflict of interest No conflict of interest
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