Background and importance Patients with HIV infection have greater risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared to the general population, being the main cause of morbidity/mortality. Factors that contribute to this increase are both those of the infection and the classical cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs).
Aim and objectives The aim was to observe the prevalence of CRFs, to estimate the cardiovascular risk of HIV patients and to analyse pharmaceutical interventions which were carried out to control the risk.
Material and methods Observational and prospective study carried out from February to June 2021.
The main unmodifiable (age, sex) and modifiable CRFs (smoking, arterial hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), diabetes mellitus, elevated low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-c) (>100 mg/dL), low high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-c) (<40 mg/dL), elevated total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL) and physical inactivity) were identified. The patient’s cardiovascular risk was measured using the Framingham Scale (2008). Data were collected through electronic clinical history and the interview with the patient in a pharmaceutical care clinic.
Results 63 patients were included. Median age was 53 (IQR 45–57) years and 67% were men.
The CVRFs analysed were: (a) tobacco use 50.7% (median: 10 cigarettes/day (IQR 9–20)); (b) arterial hypertension 31.7% (70% were treated pharmacologically but only 25% had their blood pressure controlled); (c) diabetes mellitus 8%; (d) 50.8% had high total cholesterol, 63.40% high LDL-c and 17.4% low HDL-c (27% were under pharmacological treatment) and ( e) 61.9% carried out regular physical activity.
According to the Framingham Scale, 23.4% had a high risk of CVD in the next 10 years and 28.5% a moderate risk.
92 pharmaceutical interventions were carried out. The most relevant were: recommendation to quit smoking habits and/or monitoring adherence and tolerance of varenicycline (44%), advice on nutritional habits (41.3%) and the suggestion to start or increase weekly physical activity (32%).
Conclusion and relevance CRFs are common in these HIV patients and a large proportion of them have a moderate–high risk of CVD. The main role of the pharmacist in this study has been aimed at modifying heart-healthy lifestyle habits. The approach of cardiovascular risk should be considered as part of the integral follow-up of HIV patients.
Conflict of interest No conflict of interest
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