Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections in COVID-19 affected patients: protocol for a case–control study
  1. Carla Codina-Jiménez1,
  2. Sergio Marin1,
  3. Marlene Álvarez1,
  4. Maria Dolores Quesada2,
  5. Beatriz Rodríguez-Ponga2,
  6. Ester Valls1,
  7. Carles Quiñones1
  1. 1 Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain
  2. 2 Microbiology Department, Clinical Laboratory North Metropolitan Area, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Carla Codina-Jiménez, Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; carla.codinaa{at}


Background Nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) is an important clinical concern among COVID-19 hospitalised patients. It can cause sepsis and septic shock leading to high morbidity, mortality, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this case–control study is to identify the risk factors associated with the nBSI development in COVID-19 hospitalised patients and its incidence.

Methods and analysis A retrospective case–control study will be performed. Cases will include nBSI episodes of adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, Spain, from April to December 2020 with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Patients transferred from other hospitals will be excluded. Controls will include hospitalisation episodes of COVID-19 patients without nBSI. We will recruit a minimum of 74 nBSI episodes (cases) and 74 controls (according to sample size calculation). We will collect data on sociodemographics, clinical status at admission, hospital admission, in-hospital mortality, and exposure data (use of antivirals, glucocorticoids or immunomodulatory agents, length of hospitalisation, and use of medical devices such as intravenous catheters). A bivariate and a subsequent multivariate regression analysis will be performed to assess the independent effect of the associated risk factors after adjusting for confounders. The nBSI incidence rate will be estimated according to the number of nBSI episodes in admitted COVID-19 patients among the total person-month of follow-up.

Ethics and dissemination The protocol of this study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Drug Investigation of the Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. The results of this case–control study will be published in a peer reviewed journal.

  • case-control studies
  • critical care
  • COVID-19
  • drug-related side effects and adverse reactions
  • pharmacy service
  • hospital

This article is made freely available for personal use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.