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Antibiotic utilisation in adult and children patients in Kosovo hospitals
  1. Shaip Krasniqi1,
  2. Ann Versporten2,
  3. Arianit Jakupi3,
  4. Denis Raka4,
  5. Armond Daci4,
  6. Valon Krasniqi1,
  7. Zana Deva5,
  8. Albiona Rashiti5,
  9. Naime Brajshori6,
  10. Shefqet Hajdari6,
  11. Jetëmira Bytyqi6,
  12. Burim Neziri6,
  13. Herman Goossens2,
  14. Lul Raka5,6
  1. 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo
  2. 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  3. 3Kosovo Medicine Agency, Ministry of Health of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
  4. 4Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo
  5. 5Institute of Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo
  6. 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo
  1. Correspondence to Professor Lul Raka, Institute of Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Prishtina, 10000, Kosovo; lul.raka{at}


Objectives There are no reliable data on antibiotic use in Kosovo hospitals. The aim of this survey was to monitor volumes and patterns of antibiotic use in hospitalised patients in order to identify targets for quality improvement.

Methods Data on antimicrobial use were collected from seven hospitals in Kosovo during 2013 using the standardised point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology as developed by the ESAC (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption) and ARPEC (Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children). The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial agent on the day of the PPS.

Results Overall, 1667 patients were included in the study: adults 1345 (81%) and children 322 (19%). Of the hospital inpatients, 579/1345 (43%) adults and 188/322 (58%) children received at least one antibiotic during a hospital stay. The top three antibacterial subgroups (ATC level 3) were β-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. In all hospital centres, the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was ceftriaxone (39% for adult and 36% for children). Antibiotics were administered mainly parenterally in 74% of adults and 94% of children. Empirical prescribing was higher in adults 498/579 (86%) and children 181/188 (96%), compared with targeted treatment based on susceptibility testing—81 (14%) and 8 (4%), respectively.

Conclusions Antibiotic use in Kosovo’s hospitals is very high. Gathered data will be an important tool to identify targets for quality improvement and will support preparation of guidelines and protocols for the prudent use of antibiotics.

  • surveillance
  • antibiotic use
  • point prevalence survey

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