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CLEO: a multidimensional tool to assess clinical, economic and organisational impacts of pharmacists’ interventions

Abstract

Objectives Clinical pharmacists’ interventions (PIs) are an important element in ensuring good pharmaceutical care. We aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive multidimensional tool for assessing the potential impact of PIs for daily practice of medication review.

Methods Experts of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) developed the CLinical, Economic and Organisational (CLEO) tool, consisting of three independent dimensions concerning clinical, economic and organisational impact. They were asked to analyse 30 scenarios of PIs, and re-rated 10 PIs with a washout of 1 month (internal validation). Then, seven external experts not involved in the development of the tool rated 60 scenarios collected when using the CLEO in daily practice. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were determined by calculation of the intra-class correlation (ICCA,1). Users’ satisfaction and acceptability of the tool were assessed on a 7-level Likert scale with a 17-item questionnaire.

Results For internal reliability, the inter-rater reliability for the CLEO tool was good for clinical dimensions (ICCA,1=0.693), excellent for economic dimensions (ICCA,1=0.815) and fair for organisational dimensions (ICCA,1=0.421); and the intra-rater reliability was good for clinical dimensions (ICCA,1=0.822), excellent for economic dimensions (ICCA,1=0.918) and good for organisational dimensions (ICCA,1=0.738). For external reliability, the inter-rater reliability was good for clinical dimensions (ICCA,1=0.649), excellent for economic dimensions (ICCA,1=0.814) and fair for organisational dimensions (ICCA,1=0.500). CLEO was viewed as relevant (mean±SD 4.93±1.27), acceptable (4.81±1.78), practicable (5.56±1.45) and precise (5.38±1.47).

Conclusions CLEO is a comprehensive tool assessing clinical, economic and organisational impacts of PIs which has been developed, validated and was reliable and feasible for use in routine clinical practice.

  • documentation
  • pharmacy service
  • hospital
  • quality of health care
  • safety
  • professional competence

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. Data are available upon reasonable request.

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