Background Guidelines for the management of status epilepticus (SE) aid in rationalising the treatment for a better clinical outcome; however, published literature regarding the use of antiepileptics and compliance is limited, even after the availability of a consensus guideline.
Objectives To evaluate the use of antiepileptics in children with SE and to analyse the effect of compliance with the Status Epilepticus Management Protocol on clinical outcomes.
Methods An open-label non-randomised prospective observational study was conducted in children with SE aged 1 month to 14 years for 8 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. The recommended antiepileptics, sequence of drug administration and time frames of management offered to paediatric patients were assessed for compliance with the Status Epilepticus Management Protocol adopted in our hospital. Comparison of clinical outcomes (hospital stay, intubation, refractory and super-refractory SE, duration of SE cessation, functional motor deficits and cognitive decline) between compliant and non-compliant patients was assessed.
Results A total of 40 patients were included in the study, of which 28 (70%) were boys. All the patients received midazolam nasal spray in the triage area. Only 18% of the patients received rescue benzodiazepine (BZD) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in pre-hospital settings. Median time (p25–p75) of administration of first-line AED (BZD) and second-line AED (non-BZD) was 11 (8–15) min and 30 (22–35) min, respectively. Administration of continuous infusion (IV midazolam) was delayed at 57 (45–69) min. Compliance with the Status Epilepticus Management Protocol was seen in 24 (60%) patients. Non-compliance with the treatment protocol in relation to the time frame significantly prolonged the length of hospital stay (9 vs 4 days, p=0.0008) and SE duration from first assessment (115 vs 50 min; p=0.005). At discharge, the proportion of patients returning to their functional baseline was significantly different in the compliant and non-compliant patient groups (79% vs 44%). There were no deaths.
Conclusion Rescue therapy in the pre-hospital setting needs attention. There was full compliance with the Status Epilepticus Management Protocol for choice of AED and sequence of AED therapy. Non-compliance in treatment management within time frames significantly affected the length of hospital stay, duration of SE and clinical outcome.
- Critical Care
- Clinical medicine
- Emergency Medicine
- Evidence-based medicine
- Practice Guideline
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article.
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