Objective This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a low trough serum concentration of vancomycin on acute kidney injury in infants and toddlers in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of 126 infants and toddlers (aged between 29 days and 3 years) from the PICU of a tertiary care hospital who were administered intravenous vancomycin between January 2019 and December 2022. Information about their demographic factors, duration of PICU stay, time of administration and trough levels of vancomycin were retrieved. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic factors and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the determining factors.
Results Based on the trough concentration of vancomycin, the participants were divided into three groups as follows: 4–5 mg/L, 5–15 mg/L and >15 mg/L. The serum vancomycin concentration was significantly related to body weight, albumin, cystatin C, urea nitrogen in serum, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (p<0.05) in these patients. Multivariate analysis showed that body weight, albumin, cystatin C, urea nitrogen in serum and creatinine clearance were independent contributors to the trough vancomycin concentration. There was no difference in the effectiveness of different trough concentrations on patients (p=0.241). The cumulative incidence of acute kidney injury was highest in the group with a trough concentration of vancomycin >15 mg/L (p<0.01).
Conclusions Patients with a vancomycin trough concentration of 4–5 mg/L in the PICU had a high cure rate (79.4%) and a low incidence of acute kidney injury (HR 18.3, 95% CI 5.135 to 87.621; p<0.001). Therefore, the serum trough concentration should be considered but it should also be combined with the treatment effect to achieve individualised administration for the clinical application of vancomycin.
- CLINICAL MEDICINE
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Critical Care
- Administration, Intravenous
- Case-Control Studies
Data availability statement
Data are available in a public, open access repository. No.