Table 1

Included papers and their characteristics; options available as follows:

AuthorYearCountrySetting*Ward type†Population ‡Study designDefinition of errorDetection method
Cousins et al 14 2005EnglandHospital – generalMixedNot statedProspective observationalDefinition from Taxis (2003).Disguised observation
Ghaleb et al 15 2010EnglandHospital – specialistMixedPaediatricsProspective observationalGhaleb et al 22 Disguised observation
Narula et al 16 2011EnglandHospital – specialistMixedPaediatricsRetrospective observationalNational Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention23 Spontaneous reporting
O’Hare et al 17 1995Northern IrelandHospital – specialistNot statedPaediatricsProspective observationalUnited States Pharmacopoeia (USP)33 Disguised observation
Ross et al 18 2000ScotlandHospital – specialistMixedPaediatricsRetrospective observationalLocal definitionSpontaneous reporting
Taxis and Barber19 2003EnglandHospital – generalMixedNot statedProspective observationalLocal definitionDisguised observation
Thomas and Taylor20 2014EnglandNot statedCritical care unitsAdultsRetrospective observationalLocal definition34 Spontaneous reporting
Wirtz et al 21 2003EnglandHospital – specialistNot statedNot statedProspective observationalDefinition from Taxis (2003).19 Disguised observation
  • *Hospital (general); hospital (specialist); ambulatory care unit; home; not stated.

  • †Medical; surgical; critical care unit; operating theatre; emergency department; mixed; not stated.

  • ‡Adults; paediatrics; neonates; not stated.