Table 2

Characteristics of clinical cases selected for assessment and its impact based on the CLinical, Economic and Organisational (CLEO) tool

Characteristics30 scenarios for internal reliability60 scenarios for external reliability
N%N%
Patient age<1813.323.3
18–60723.3813.3
≥602273.35083.3
Patient genderWomen2273.33558.3
Men826.72541.7
Clinical specialitiesPsychiatry310.046.7
Acute care826.71016.7
Long-term care1756.74371.7
Rehabilitation ward26.735.0
Types of drug-related problemsNon-conformity to guidelines/contraindication310.0610.0
Untreated indication26.758.3
Subtherapeutic dosage310.0610.0
Supratherapeutic dosage26.7610.0
Drug without indication310.058.3
Drug interaction46.7813.3
Adverse drug reaction313.3711.7
Improper administration416.7915.0
Failure to receive drug26.735.0
Drug monitoring413.358.3
Types of pharmacist interventionsAddition of a new drug413.3610.0
Drug discontinuation413.3813.3
Drug switch413.31016.7
Change of administration route310.0610.0
Drug monitoring516.7915.0
Administration modality optimisation520.0915.0
Dose adjustment513.31220.0
Clinical impact*−1: Harmful146.791.9
0: Null4220.05010.4
1: Minor5526.212125.2
2: Moderate4320.519139.8
3: Major3717.610020.8
4: Vital178.191.9
Economic impact*−1: Negative3416.2479.8
0: Null8339.513427.9
1: Positive9344.329962.3
Organisational impact*−1: Negative125.7163.3
0: Null9545.222446.7
1: Positive10349.124050.0
  • *Percentage was calculated by dividing the number of times each level of each impact was assessed by raters by 210 (7 raters x 30 scenarios) for the internal reliability and by 480 (8 raters x 60 scenarios) for the external reliability.