Table 1

Patient demographics and digoxin toxicity symptoms

Patient demographics (N=87)Patients receiving DIF
Sex, n (%)
 Male35 (40.2)
 Female50 (57.5)
 Unknown2 (2.3)
Age, years*
 Mean (SD)80.2 (10.1)
 Median (range)83.0 (43–96)
 <18, n (%)0 (0.0)
 ≥18 to <65, n (%)7 (8.0)
 ≥65 years, n (%)80 (92.0)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 White80 (92.0)
 Indian1 (1.1)
 Western Asian1 (1.1)
 Unknown/other/left blank5 (5.7)
Weight, kg (N=23)†
 Mean (SD)67.6 (16.8)
 Median (range)66.6 (37–111)
Baseline (pre-DIF treatment) serum digoxin concentration, µg/L (N=76)
 Mean (SD)4.6 (2.5)
 Median (range)4.4 (1.1–21.3)
Toxicity symptoms, N=87‡
Bradycardia64 (73.6)
Abnormal mental status/visual disturbances34 (39.1)
Hyperkalaemia29 (33.3)
Gastrointestinal effects27 (31.0)
Second- or third-degree heart block16 (18.4)
Atrial fibrillation11 (12.6)
Other arrhythmia12 (13.8)
Other non-arrhythmia symptoms§6 (6.9)
Lethargy/weakness/generally unwell9 (10.3)
Acute kidney injury/increased acute kidney injury/renal failure5 (5.7)
Asystole5 (5.7)
Ventricular tachycardia4 (4.6)
Arrhythmia symptoms combined74 (85.1)
  • *Mean (SD) age was 76.4 (10.9) years in men (n=35) and 82.4 (8.6) years in women (n=50).

  • †Mean (SD) body weight was 84.0 (21.9) kg in men (n=5) and 62.8 (12.6) kg in women (n=17).

  • ‡Patients may have reported >1 toxicity symptom.

  • §Other symptoms included continuous seizure activity (n=1), loss of consciousness (n=1), hypothermia with hypertension (n=1), hypotension (n=1), raised inflammatory markers with unrecordable blood pressure (n=1) and dizziness (n=1). All were reported in conjunction with cardiac arrhythmia, except in the patient with hypothermia and hypertension.

  • ¶Bradycardia, second- or third-degree heart block, asystole, ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation or other arrhythmias.

  • DIF, digoxin-specific antibody fragments; SD, standard deviation.