Table 2

Overview of methods and data type

Methods and data typeDescription
Ethnographic observations; field notesAbout 54 hours of observations were completed over 14 days in the period 6 June–24 July 2019. Periods of observations were of 2 hours 30 min on average (min 1 hour to max 7 hours).
Three one-to-one sessions of nurse ADC super-user training were also observed.
Timed observations with WOMBAT; structured tasks and time stamps in spreadsheetAbout 42 hours of observations were timed using the WOMBAT tool.
Timed observations took place over 13 days between 6 June and 24 July 2019, average duration of individual observation session: 2 hours 23 min (range 1–47 hours).
Interviews; transcripts of audio recordings and field notesTwo 2-hour ‘drop-in sessions’ were organised to facilitate interviews with ICU nurses: 19 nurses participated.
Interviews took place with ADC back-office pharmacist, ADC trainer, Deputy Director of Pharmacy, Clinical Program Director.
Incidents reports; structured and free text data in spreadsheetWe received a total of 171 incidents that had been reported in ICU in relation to medications in the period January–June 2019, 109 of these pertaining to use/supply/governance of CDs.
Audits of controlled drug registries; structured data in spreadsheetWe audited 6 CDs registers (1231 pages) in ICU, 5 registers (1120 pages) in oncology and 9 registers (1996 pages) in orthopaedics.
ADC transaction logs; structured data in spreadsheetWe received logs of all recorded ICU ADC transactions for the period March–June 2019.
  • ADC, automated dispensing cabinets; CDs, controlled drugs; ICU, intensive care unit; WOMBAT, Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (a structured data collection tool).