Table 1

Summary of the articles about the use of simulations in hospital pharmaceutical technologies initial education

Article information*Article profileOutcomeResults before and after simulationOther key information
Serag-Bolos et al 27
Am J Pharm Educ (2018; USA)
Evaluating the impact of an oncology simulation on students’ knowledge about oncology pharmacy practice and evaluating how it affects their perceptions of an oncology pharmacist’s role
Participants: 109 students
Participation: Mandatory (group of 5–6) but voluntary pre- and post-simulation assessments (alone)
Room: Training room
Equipment: Horizontal hood
Topic: As. Tech
Knowledge on ovarian cancerBefore: 86%
After: 99% (p=0.0016)
Students generally enjoyed the oncology simulation and appreciated the opportunity to practise key concepts learnt in their curriculum
Kirkpatrick level: 1, 2
Hypersensitivity reactionsBefore: 72%
After: 92% (p=0.0002)
Side effectsBefore: 80%
After: 87% (p=0.11)
Jewellery in cleanroomBefore: 92%
After: 97% (p=0.17)
HandwashingBefore: 57%
After: 92% (p<0.0001)
Planning: 40 hours
Expert group: 4 pharmacy practice faculty members (including a board-certified oncology pharmacist)
Aseptic preparationBefore: 50%
After: 61% (p=0.15)
Understanding the role of an oncology pharmacistBefore: 3.8 (0.9)
After: 4.5 (0.8) (p<0.001)
Perception of the ability to prepare ordersBefore: 3.2 (1.2)
After: 4.2 (0.8) (p<0.001)
Budget: cost-saving strategies and departmental funds
Patel et al 31
Am J Pharm Educ (2011; USA)
Cultivating student confidence in preparing IV medications and emphasising safe medication practices
Participants: 150 students
Participation: NM
Room: Virtual
Equipment: NM
Topic: As. Tech
Written examinationBefore: 89.6±7.3%
Year 1: 91.2±7.5% (p>0.05)
Year 2: 96.1±4.4% (p<0.001)
88%: Laboratory met their expectations
Expert group: NM
Kirkpatrick level: 1, 2
Salman et al 46
Pharmacy (2020; USA)
Demonstrating the value of simulation-based activity in PN education, as perceived by the students
Participants: 84 students
Participation: Mandatory
Room: Classroom
Equipment: PN equipment
Topic: As. Tech
Sterile compounding and aseptic technique procedures involved in the preparation of PN−5.48 (p<0.0001)Comments were generally positive
Cost: US$11.50 per student
Kirkpatrick level: 1, 2
Process in which different components are combined together−6.19 (p<0.0001)
Role of the pharmacy personnel in the preparation of PN−5.29 (p<0.0001)
Comfortable performing the calculations of the individual components of PN−5.36 (p<0.0001)
An elective in PN would be a beneficial course to have in the College of Pharmacy curriculum−3.43 (p<0.0001)
  • *Article information: author, journal, year, country, type of education (continuing education or initial education), study’s objective

  • As. Tech, aseptic technique; IV, intravenous; NA, not applicable; NE, not evaluated; NM, not mentioned; NS, non-significant; PN, parenteral nutrition.