Table 2

Inclusion and exclusion criteria of articles for the systematic literature review

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Population (P)Studies performed with inpatients or in hospital settingsStudies performed with outpatients in community settings
Focus of the study,
Intervention (I)
Studies utilising automated unit dose dispensing system (UDDS) for drug dispensing in which drugs are first individually packaged and labelled as unit doses without patient information (anonymous) and then assembled patient specifically by robot or manually at the ward
Automated UDDS combined with other technologies or interventions in the medication process
Studies using solely original pack dispensing systems, other drug dose dispensing technologies such as automated multi-dose dispensing system (one or more drugs are packed into a pouch or container containing patient information, for each time of administration), various semi-automated dose dispensing technologies (carousels, automatic dispensing cabinets) or manual drug dispensing system
Studies only describing the implementation or development of the UDDS
Inadequate description of automated drug dispensing process
Studies not concerning drug dispensing
Comparison (C)Control group is not required
Outcomes (O)Outcomes related UDDS functionality such as inpatient’s medication process and medication stock managementNo outcomes from the functionality of UDDS
Study design (S)Peer reviewed journal articles; original articles and systematic review articlesNot peer reviewed publications; letters, editorials, news, commentaries, conference proceedings and non-scientific publications
Time (T)Articles published between 2000 and 2020Articles published before 2000 and after 2020
LanguageEnglish language articles or foreign language articles with an English abstract