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GM-020 Characterising an operational team and pushing towards a development-oriented team in a clinical pharmacy setting
  1. L Thygesen
  1. Region Hovedstadens Apotek, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark


Background Suboptimally functioning teams struggle to perform development-oriented tasks. At Glostrup Hospital a team of dedicated and well trained clinical pharmacy staff did not perform as a team and no development activities were initiated.

Purpose To characterise this team to identify interventions for transforming the team from dedicated and reliable employees to an innovative and development-oriented team.

Materials and methods The study was conducted at the clinical pharmacy unit at Glostrup Hospital, which included 6 pharmacy technicians and 2 clinical pharmacists from 2011 until 2013.

The method consisted of 3 elements:

  1. Role clarification of team members according to the theory by David W. Merill, and Roger H. Reid “Typology of communication styles”,1 which uses four categories; driver, analytical, expressive and amiable. Role clarification was used to identify how the team members communicated optimally, and how they complemented each other.

  2. Identification of the four (five) stages of group development according to Bruce W. Tuckman2 – forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.

  3. Preparation for action according to the PERFORM model by Adair.3 The PERFORM model consists of 7 elements: Purpose, Empowerment and accountability, Relationship and communication, Flexibility, Optimal performance to achieve results, Recognition and appreciation, Morale. The PERFORM model used to recognise which qualifications and behaviour the team already contained and which needed to be improved by input from the leader.

Data collection Roles were clarified using a validated data collection instrument and data on the PERFORM model was collected by a questionnaire.

Results Among the 8 team members (including the leader), 2 drivers, 2 analyticals, 2 expressives and 2 amiables were identified as primary preferences. All typologies were represented, which is optimal for team building.

The team members learned to recognise and respect the different communication styles.

In a study from the Hospital of Odense University they used the typology test by Merill and Reid in a clinical genetic department of 60 people.4 In this study they used the knowledge of each other’s personality and professionalism to create a united department, to discover the issues linking people together and to make common goals. The result is well-being and improved cooperation.

Comparing the study from Odense University Hospital with this actual study shows that the typology method does improved team cooperation.

The answers from the 8 team members on the PERFORM questionnaire showed that the team had low scores on flexibility. The highest scores were in relationship and communication.

Conclusions The study found an optimal distribution of typologies among the clinical pharmacy staff to ensure proper team composition. The study also revealed that the leader should focus on flexibility to reach the goal; a high performance team, which can contribute to development and innovation.


  1. Personal styles & effective Performance; David W. Merrill and Roger H. Reid © 1999 by CRC Press LLC

  2. Theories and applications of Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill. Third edition with D. Moneth. Published 2001

  3. John Adair. Effective Teambuilding, Ashgate publishing Company 1986

  4. “De får aldrig hænderne ned” by Ane Vestbjerg. HK Kommunalbladet nr. 3 2011,

No conflict of interest.

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