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PP-030 100.000 treatments prepared by robot: what have we learned?
  1. C Bufarini,
  2. A Marinozzi,
  3. S Guglielmi,
  4. S Leoni,
  5. L Losavio,
  6. D Paolucci
  1. AO Ospedali Riuniti, Pharmacy, Ancona, Italy


Background In 2007, the University Hospital of Ancona started the journey in automating IV compounding. At the end of 2009, the clinical validation process and workflow reorganisation ended, the second robot was introduced to set up a fully automated IV oncology pharmacy. The laboratory is composed of two APOTECAchemo systems and a laminar airflow cabinet which work from 8 am to 4 pm. There are 3 technicians from 8 am to 2 pm and 1 technician from 10 am to 4 pm. We work in a just-in-time production (80% for outpatients and 20% inpatients) and the rush hours go from 9 am to 1 pm. Two systems are used until 2 pm and one system works for the entire day.

Purpose To take stock of 7 years of experience in automated IV compounding.

Material and methods The production data were analysed in terms of doses and type of preparations delivered, by means of the statistical tools of APOTECAchemo.

Results Before 2010 10,400 treatments were produced automatically in a year and in 2010 this increased to 16,300 (80% of our annual production). In the following years, production increased with 19,300, 19,600 and 20,300 treatments in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. In August 2014, we passed the threshold of 100,000 treatments compounded with APOTECAchemo, representing 95% of the treatments compounded. The annual production consists of 85% in bags, 10% in syringes and 5% in elastomeric pumps. 56 different active ingredients are used.


  1. Automation ensures the highest quality standards because every step of the compounding process is controlled and traced

  2. Automation can cover more than 90% of daily preparations even in a just-in-time system.

  3. Automation allows a more intelligent and efficient management of human resources: for every 10,000 treatments automated, one FTE technician can be elevated to higher value-added tasks

  4. To take advantage of automation, the workflow should be redesigned (i.e. introduce multi-dose vials and drug days).

References and/or acknowledgements No conflict of interest.

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