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An update on extravasation: basic knowledge for clinical pharmacists
  1. Elise Joelle Smolders1,2,
  2. Guillemette Emma Benoist1,3,
  3. Chloe Corrie Hans Smit2,
  4. Peter ter Horst2
  1. 1 Pharmacy, Radboud Institue of Health Sciences, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Pharmacy, Isala Hospitals, Zwolle, Overijssel, The Netherlands
  3. 3 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Deventer Hospital, Deventer, Overijssel, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Elise Joelle Smolders, Pharmacy, Radboudumc, Nijmegen 8025, The Netherlands; elise.smolders{at}


Extravasation is the leakage of intravenously administered solution into surrounding tissues, which can cause serious damage to the patient. The impact of extravasation is mostly determined by the localisation and volume of extravasation, but the physicochemical properties of the drugs are also important. In this paper a stepwise approach to managing an extravasation is described, with recommendations on the role of the pharmacist. Information on osmolality, pH, pKa and the buffering capacity of drugs is given in relation to extravasation, which is summarised in a practical crash card that can be used in clinical practice.

  • drug administration (others)
  • clinical pharmacy
  • education & training (see medical education & training)
  • health & safety
  • IV administration

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